Within the MSM population, men who have sex with both men and women (MSMW) are identified as a high-risk group both worldwide and in Europe. In a multi-centred bio-behavioural cross-sectional study, we aimed to assess the relationship(s) between socio-demographic factors, stigma, sexual behavioural patterns, test seeking behaviour and sero-status amongst MSMW. A multi-level analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with being MSMW versus Men who have Sex with Men Only (MSMO). A total of 4901 MSM were enrolled across the 13 study sites. Participants were categorised as MSMW in the 12.64% of the cases. Factors such as educational status, perceived homonegativity, testing facilities knowledge and HIV testing lifetime seem to be relevant factors when characterising the MSMW group. The results highlight the vulnerability of MSMW and the wide spectrum of risky behavioural and psycho-social patterns, particularly in terms of HIV testing, ‘outness’, and perceived stigma.
- Respondent-driven sampling
- Risk behaviours
- Time–location sampling
UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
- SDG 3 - Good Health and Well-Being