Sleep and awakening quality during COVID-19 confinement: Complexity and relevance for health and behavior

Teresa Paiva, Cátia Reis, Amélia Feliciano, Hugo Canas-Simião, Maria Augusta Machado, Tânia Gaspar, Gina Tomé, Cátia Branquinho, Maria Raquel Silva, Lúcia Ramiro, Susana Gaspar, Carla Bentes, Francisco Sampaio, Lara Pinho, Conceição Pereira, Alexandra Carreiro, Susana Moreira, Isabel Luzeiro, Joana Pimentel, Gabriela VideiraJúlio Fonseca, Ana Bernarda, Joana Vaz Castro, Sofia Rebocho, Katie Almondes, Helena Canhão, Margarida Gaspar Matos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)
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Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep and awakening quality (SQ and AQ) during COVID-19 in a large and diversified population in order to identify significant associations and risks in terms of demography, health and health-related behaviors, sleep variables, mental health, and attitudes. Methods/Results:Online surveys were used for data collection, received from 5479 individuals from the general population, sleep disorder patients, and COVID-involved (medical doctors (MDs) and nurses) and COVID-affected professionals (teachers, psychologists, and dentists). SQ and AQ were worse in adults, females, and high-education subjects. Feeling worse, having economic problems, depression, anxiety, irritability, and a high Calamity Experience Check List (CECL) score during COVID were significantly associated with poor SQ and AQ. Shorter sleep duration, increased latency, poor nutrition, low physical activity, increased mobile and social network use, more negative and less positive attitudes and behaviors were associated with poor AQ. Conclusions: The SQ logistic regression showed gender, morbidities, CECL, and awakenings as relevant, whereas, for AQ, relevant variables further included age and physical activity. Aiming to have a high stress compliance, each individual should sleep well, have important control of their mood, practice positive behaviors while dismissing negative behaviors and attitudes, practice exercise, have adequate nutrition, and beware of technologies and dependences.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3506
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2021


  • Attitudes
  • Calamity Experience Check List
  • COVID-19
  • Dependences
  • Health
  • Health professionals
  • Health-related behaviors
  • Mood
  • Sleep patients
  • Sleep/awakening quality


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