Sintering behaviour of a ZnO waste powder obtained as by-product from brass smelting

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The effect of two sintering methods (conventional sintering and two-step sintering) and of alumina addition on the sintering behaviour of a ZnO-rich waste powder (ZnO > 95 wt%), a by-product from brass smelting industry, was studied aiming to improve the sintered density and grain size. Both conventional sintering and two-step sintering methods did not lead to fully dense powder compacts, as densification was conditioned by abnormal grain growth and the particle size of the ZnO-rich residue. When two-step sintering was used the grain growth was reduced comparatively to conventional sintering method. The highest relative sintered density (about 90%) was achieved when samples of ZnO waste and samples of ZnO waste with 2 wt% added Al2O3 were processed by two-step sintering and corresponded to a mean grain size of around 18 µm and 7 µm, respectively. XRD and SEM results indicated that alumina addition helped to inhibit grain growth due to the formation of gahnite spinel (ZnAl2O4) precipitates in the grain boundaries of zincite (ZnO) grains.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6250-6256
Number of pages7
JournalCeramics International
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2018


  • A. Sintering
  • B. Grain size
  • B. Porosity
  • D. ZnO waste powder


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