Biofilms are generally defined as communities of cells involved in a self-produced extracellular matrix adhered to a surface. In biofilms, the bacteria are less sensitive to host defense mechanisms and antimicrobial agents, due to multiple strategies, that involve modulation of gene expression, controlled metabolic rate, intercellular communication, composition, and 3D architecture of the extracellular matrix. These factors play a key role in streptococci pathogenesis, contributing to therapy failure and promoting persistent infections. The species of the pyogenic group together with Streptococcus pneumoniae are the major pathogens belonging the genus Streptococcus, and its biofilm growth has been investigated, but insights in the genetic origin of biofilm formation are limited. This review summarizes pyogenic streptococci biofilms with details on constitution, formation, and virulence factors associated with formation.
- antibiotic resistance
- virulence factors