Single and mixture toxicity of abamectin and difenoconazole to adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Ana Letícia Madeira Sanches, Bruna Horvath Vieira, Marina Vanderlei Reghini, Raquel Aparecida Moreira, Emanuela Cristina Freitas, Evaldo L.G. Espíndola, Michiel A. Daam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


Concerns have been raised in recent years on the potential risks related with pesticide mixtures that are likely to be present in agricultural edge-of-field waterbodies. Despite the high use of pesticides in tropical countries like Brazil, studies evaluating pesticide mixtures are especially scarce in the tropics. The insecticide abamectin and the fungicide difenoconazole are the main pesticides intensively used in Brazilian strawberry crop and are hence likely to occur simultaneously. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the toxicity of abamectin, difenoconazole and their mixture to the tropical fish Danio rerio. Laboratory toxicity tests with the individual pesticides indicated 48 h-LC50 values of 59 μg L−1 for abamectin and 1.4 mg L−1 for difenoconazole. Mixtures of the two pesticides revealed a synergistic deviation of the independent action model. Implications of study findings for the aquatic risk assessment of pesticide mixtures, especially in tropical countries and indications for future research are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)582-587
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017


  • Acute toxicity
  • Danio rerio
  • Pesticide mixture
  • Tropics


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