We characterized 353 isolates responsible for pediatric invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD) in Portugal between 2006 and 2008. Serotypes included in the seven-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7) accounted for 17% of IPD. Serotypes 1, 7F and 19A were the most frequent causes of IPD and the later consolidated as the most frequent serotype among erythromycin and penicillin non-susceptible isolates. Serotype 1 was associated with older children and empyemas, while serotype 19A was associated with IPD in younger (<2 years) children. The higher valency vaccines PCV10 and PCV13 have a potentially superior coverage, 55% and 83% respectively, but non-vaccine serotypes are emerging as important causes of IPD. A decline of resistance with patient age was noted. Comparing with previous data from Portugal, this study showed a continued decline of PCV7 serotypes and that overall resistance has stabilized following the initial decline of the first post-PCV7 years. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.