'Ser teudo de responder' ou 'ter de responder': sobre a emergência de usos deônticos de 'ter de (que)' + INF em português

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This proposal is part of an ongoing diachronic research on ter and haver (‘have’) in Portuguese, focusing in particular on the emergence of deontic constructions with ter. In this article I analyze data retrieved from a diachronic corpus and discuss the chronology and conditioning factors of the changes involved in both the disuse of ser teudo de [have-passive Prep] INF, a construction largely attested in Portuguese past stages, and the innovation ter de [have Prep] INF. Both constructions appear to have similar deontic readings, yet the datasuggest that they are not diachronically linked, the latter appearing only in a much later period. Following the presentation of theoretical and methodological issues, the retrieved data are described and discussed, the main conclusions being that: the obsolescence of ser teudo appears to be related to morphophonological factors (probably among others); the modal construction ter de INF emerged late in Portuguese and is probably a variant of ter que INF; ter que INF, the original deontic construction, emerged by reanalysis of structures where que was originally a relative pronoun (referring the object of ter), in ambiguous contexts which favored the new interpretation of the structure as a modal construction.
Original languagePortuguese
Pages (from-to)55-68
Number of pages14
JournalRevista da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2020
EventXXXV Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística - Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal
Duration: 9 Oct 201911 Oct 2019


  • Diachrony
  • Portuguese 'have' Verbs
  • Competition
  • Deontic Modal Constructions
  • Diacronia
  • Ter e Haver
  • Construções modais Deônticas
  • Competição

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