Selective recovery of phenolic compounds and carbohydrates from carob kibbles using water-based extraction

Mohammad Almanasrah, Luísa B. Roseiro, Rafal Bogel-Lukasik, Florbela Carvalheiro, Carla Maria Carvalho Gil Brazinha de Barros Ferreira, João Crespo, Mari Kallioinen, Mika Mänttäri, Luis C. Duarte

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)


Carob kibbles are an important renewable source of valuable compounds, such as fermentable sugars and phenolic compounds. However, the selective recovery of these compounds is not a trivial task. In this work, a strategy was developed to enable the recovery of both classes of compounds by means of a water-based extraction.One-step extraction recovered only approximately 20% of the phenolic compounds, corresponding to an extraction yield of 0.6g Gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100g dry mass of carob kibbles. The obtained extract contained a significant amount of carbohydrates (110g/L). The alternative two-step extraction developed enabled higher compound selectivity together with an increase in the yield of the phenolic compounds to about 70%, corresponding to 1.9gGAE/100g carob dry matter. The two-step extraction was easily scaled-up and is an effective method to obtain significantly separated carbohydrates and polyphenol-rich streams that can be further processed, e.g., in biorefineries or food industries, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)443-450
Number of pages8
JournalIndustrial Crops and Products
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2015


  • Aqueous extraction
  • Biorefinery
  • Fermentable sugars
  • Glucose fructose syrup
  • Scale-up

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