Selective recovery of phenolic compounds and carbohydrates from carob kibbles using water-based extraction

Mohammad Almanasrah, Luísa B. Roseiro, Rafal Bogel-Lukasik, Florbela Carvalheiro, Carla Brazinha, João Crespo, Mari Kallioinen, Mika Mänttäri, Luís C. Duarte

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


Carob kibbles are an important renewable source of valuable compounds, such as fermentable sugars and phenolic compounds. However, the selective recovery of these compounds is not a trivial task. In this work, a strategy was developed to enable the recovery of both classes of compounds by means of a water-based extraction.One-step extraction recovered only approximately 20% of the phenolic compounds, corresponding to an extraction yield of 0.6g Gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100g dry mass of carob kibbles. The obtained extract contained a significant amount of carbohydrates (110g/L). The alternative two-step extraction developed enabled higher compound selectivity together with an increase in the yield of the phenolic compounds to about 70%, corresponding to 1.9gGAE/100g carob dry matter. The two-step extraction was easily scaled-up and is an effective method to obtain significantly separated carbohydrates and polyphenol-rich streams that can be further processed, e.g., in biorefineries or food industries, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)443-450
Number of pages8
JournalIndustrial Crops and Products
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2015


  • Aqueous extraction
  • Biorefinery
  • Fermentable sugars
  • Glucose fructose syrup
  • Scale-up


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