A search for supersymmetry (SUSY) in events with large missing transverse momentum, jets, and at least one hadronically decaying tau lepton, with zero or one additional light lepton (e/mu), has been performed using 4.7 fb(-1) of proton-proton collision data at root s = 7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No excess above the Standard Model background expectation is observed and a 95 % confidence level visible cross-section upper limit for new phenomena is set. In the framework of gauge-mediated SUSY-breaking models, lower limits on the mass scale. are set at 54 TeV in the regions where the (tau) over tilde (1) is the next-to-lightest SUSY particle (tan beta > 20). These limits provide the most stringent tests to date of GMSB models in a large part of the parameter space considered.