Portugal and Spain had radically divergent paths to democracy: social revolution in Portugal and reform in Spain. In this paper, the author suggests that a revolutionary path to democracy had a positive effect on self-organizing capabilities of the middle and working classes. Though not always lead to democratic regimes, social revolutions tend to institutionalize mechanisms that encourage civic participation of the masses. Thus, democracies arising from a revolutionary process tend to offer more opportunities and mechanisms for participation and civic inclusion of the masses in national political life.
|Translated title of the contribution||Revolution, reform and democracy: Civil society in Portugal and Spain, 1960s-2000s|
|Number of pages||22|
|Publication status||Published - 29 Nov 2015|
- Civic society