Polyphenols have been extensively studied due to their beneficial effects on human health, particularly for the prevention and treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress. Nevertheless, they are also known to have an anti-nutritional effect in relation to protein metabolism. This effect is a consequence of its binding to digestive enzymes and/or protein substrates. Dietary gluten is the main trigger of celiac disease, a common immune-based disease of the small intestine and for which the only treatment available is the adherence to a gluten-free diet. Recent studies have addressed the use of dietary polyphenols to interact with gluten proteins and avoid its downstream deleterious effects, taking the advantage of the anti-nutritive nature of polyphenols by protein sequestering. Flavonoids, coumarins and tannins have shown the ability to form insoluble complexes with gluten proteins. One of the most promising molecules has been epigallocatechin-3-gallate, which through its binding to gliadins, was able to reduce gliadins digestibility and its ability to stimulate monolayer permeability and transepithelial transport of immunodominant peptides in cell models. This review focuses on the structural features and binding capacity of polyphenols to gluten proteins and peptides, and the prospects of developing an adjuvant therapy in celiac disease.
- Adjuvant therapy
- Celiac disease