Retinal progression biomarkers of early and intermediate age-related macular degeneration

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Early and intermediate AMD patients represent a heterogeneous population with an important but variable risk of progression to more advanced stages of the disease. The five-year progression from early and intermediate AMD to late disease is known to range from 0.4% to 53%. This wide variation explains the particular interest in searching predictive AMD biomarkers. Clinical parameters such as drusen size, presence of pigmentary abnormalities, and fellow eye status were, traditionally, the more important predictive elements. Multimodal retinal assessment (Color Fundus Photography, Optical Coherence Tomography, Optical Coherence Angiography and Fundus Autofluorescence) is providing new and accurate image biomarkers, useful in research and in daily practice. If individual progression risk could be anticipated, then management plans should be adapted accordingly, considering follow-up intervals and therapeutic interventions. Here, we reviewed the most important image progression biomarkers of early and intermediate AMD with relevant interest in clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Article number36
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Age related macular degeneration (AMD)
  • Color fundus photography
  • Drusen
  • OCT-angiography
  • Optical coherence tomography
  • Progression biomarkers


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