Acute kidney injury is common and associated with negative renal and patient outcomes. The human kidney has a real but limited regeneration capacity. Understanding renal regeneration may allow us to manipulate this process and thus develop therapeutic weapons to improve patients' outcome. In the first part of this paper we discuss the clinical factors associated with renal recovery: baseline patient particularities, acute kidney injury characteristics and the medical approach taken in the short and long-term. In the second part, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying renal regeneration are explored. The immune system seems to have an important role first promoting inflammation and then tissue healing. Other players, such as cellular senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction, renal hemodynamics and metabolic reprogramming also have a role in renal regeneration. We aim to develop a short review of renal regeneration, offering a holistic view of this process.
- Acute Kidney Injury
- immune system