Removal of Bromate from Drinking Water Using the Ion Exchange Membrane Bioreactor Concept

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Bromate is a disinfection byproduct with carcinogenic properties that has to be removed from drinking water to concentrations below 10 or 25 mu g/L. This work evaluates the applicability of the ion exchange membrane bioreactor (IEMB) concept for the removal of bromate from drinking water, in situations where nitrate is also present in concentrations up to 3 orders of magnitude higher than bromate. The batch results obtained show that the biological reduction of bromate was slow and only occurring after the complete reduction of nitrate. The specific bromate reduction rates varied from 0.027 +/- 0.01 mg BrO3-/g(cell dry weight).h to 0.090 mg BrO3-/g(cell) (dry weight).h for the studied concentrations. On the other hand, transport studies, using anion exchange membranes showed that Donnan dialysis could efficiently remove bromate from polluted waters. Therefore, the use of a dense, nonporous membrane in the IEMB system, isolates the water stream from the biological compartment, allowing for the uncoupling of the water production rate from the biological reduction rate. The IEMB system was used for the treatment of a polluted water stream containing 200 mu g/L of BrO3- and 60 mg/L of NO3-. The concentrations of both ions in the treated water were reduced below the recommended levels. No bromate accumulation was observed in the biocompartment of the IEMB, suggesting its complete reduction in the biofilm formed on the membrane surface contacting the biocompartment. Therefore, the IEMB has proven to be a technology able to solve specific problems associated with the removal of bromate from water streams, since it efficiently removes bromate from drinking water even in the presence of nitrate, a known competitor of bromate biological reduction, without secondary contamination of the treated water by cells or excess of carbon source.
Original languageUnknown
Pages (from-to)7702-7708
JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2008

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