Composites are finding increased use in structural high demanding and high added value applications in advanced industries. A wide diversity exists in terms of matrix type, which can be either polymeric or metallic and type of reinforcements (ceramic, polymeric or metallic). Several technologies have been used to produce these composites; among them, additive manufacturing (AM) is currently being applied. In structural applications, the presence of defects due to fabrication is of major concern, since it affects the performance of a component with negative impact, which can affect, ultimately, human lives. Thus, the detection of defects is highly important, not only surface defects but also barely visible defects. This chapter describes the main types of defects expected in composites produced by AM. The fundamentals of different non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques are briefly discussed, as well as the state of the art of numerical simulation for several NDT techniques. A multiparametric and customized inspection system was developed based on the combination of innovative techniques in modelling and testing. Experimental validation with eddy currents, ultrasounds, X-ray and thermography is presented and analysed, as well as integration of distinctive techniques and 3D scanning characterization.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdditive Manufacturing Hybrid Processes for Composites Systems
EditorsA. Torres Marques, S. Esteves, J. Pereira , L. Oliveira
Place of PublicationCham
Number of pages31
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-44522-5
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-44521-8
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Publication series

NameAdvanced Structured Materials
ISSN (Print)1869-8433
ISSN (Electronic)1869-8441


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Composites
  • Eddy currents
  • NDT
  • Thermography
  • Ultrasounds
  • X-ray


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