Bismuth (Bi)-based photocatalysts have been attracting a lot of attention due to their visible-light-responsive properties, unique layer framework and adjustable electronic band structure. However, their photocatalytic behavior is not satisfactory, which hinders practical applications. Therefore, much research has been carried out to improve their photocatalytic performance. This review outlines the different methods and mechanisms dealing with modification of Bi-based photocatalysts. It summarizes the strategies used for enhancing the photocatalytic activity of these materials, including: (1) defect regulation, (2) exposed facet control, (3) surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect utilization, (4) heterojunction construction, (5) hierarchical porous structure design, (6) polarization effect and (7) solid solution establishment. Also a focus is given on BiOCl photocatalysts as major examples. Their applications as oxidation and reduction photocatalysts are referred, along with detailed photocatalytic reaction mechanisms. Finally, the future prospects and challenges of Bi-based photocatalytic materials are discussed.
- Surface plasmon resonance