Real-world evidence from a European cohort study of patients with treatment resistant depression: Healthcare resource utilization

K. Heerlein, S. De Giorgi, G. Degraeve, T. Frodl, W. Hagedoorn, A. J. Oliveira-Maia, C. Otte, V. Perez Sola, S. Rathod, G. Rosso, P. Sierra, A. Vita, J. Morrens, B. Rive, S. Mulhern Haughey, Y. Kambarov, A. H. Young

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Downloads (Pure)


Background: Treatment resistant depression (TRD) is diagnosed when patients experiencing a major depressive episode fail to respond to ≥2 treatments. Along with substantial indirect costs, patients with TRD have higher healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) than other patients with depression. However, research on the economic impact of this HCRU, and differences according to response to treatment, is lacking. Methods: This multicenter, observational study documented HCRU among patients with TRD in European clinical practice initiating new antidepressant treatments. Data regarding access to outpatient consultations and other healthcare resources for the first 6 months, collected using a questionnaire, were analyzed qualitatively according to response and remission status. The economic impact of HCRU, estimated using European costing data, was analyzed quantitatively. Results: Among 411 patients, average HCRU was higher in non-responders, attending five times more general practitioner (GP) consultations and spending longer in hospital (1.7 versus 1.1 days) than responders. Greater differences were observed according to remission status, with non-remitters attending seven times more GP consultations and spending approximately three times longer in hospital (1.7 versus 0.6 days) than remitters. Consequently, the estimated economic impacts of non-responders and non-remitters were significantly greater than those of responders and remitters, respectively. Limitations: Key limitations are small cohort size, absence of control groups and generalizability to different healthcare systems. Conclusion: Patients with TRD, particularly those not achieving remission, have considerable HCRU, with associated economic impact. The costs of unmet TRD treatment needs are thus substantial, and treatment success is fundamental to reduce individual needs and societal costs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)442-450
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Early online date4 Nov 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2022


  • Healthcare resource utilization
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Observational study
  • Real-world evidence
  • Treatment resistant depression


Dive into the research topics of 'Real-world evidence from a European cohort study of patients with treatment resistant depression: Healthcare resource utilization'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this