Re-evaluation of nailfold capillaroscopy in discriminating primary from secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon and in predicting systemic sclerosis: a randomised observational prospective cohort study

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Abstract

Background: Primary Raynaud’s phenomenon (pRP) is difficult to distinguish from secondary (sRP). Although nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC) may detect early alterations, no universal criteria yet discriminate between pRP from sRP. Objectives: To create and validate two NFC scores that could distinguish pRP from sRP and that could predict systemic sclerosis (SSc), respectively. Methods: We performed NFC on two separate cohorts with isolated RP, and recorded number of capillaries per field, enlarged/giant capillaries, crossed/bizarre patterns, microhemorrhages, neoangiogenesis, rarefaction, edema, blood flow velocity, stasis. By multivariate regression analysis, we evaluated the adjusted prognostic role of these features in a derivation cohort of 656 patients. Results were used to construct algorithm-based prognostic scores (A and B). These scores were then tested on a confirmation cohort of 219 patients. Results: Score A was unable to discriminate sRP from pRP (low negative predictive values with high positive predictive values for any cut-point); score B was unable to discriminate progression to SSc or a SSc-spectrum disorder (low positive predictive values with high negative predictive values for lower cut-points). Conclusion: NFC patterns, believed as specific, showed low discriminatory power and on their own are unable to reliably discriminate sRP from pRP or predict evolution to SSc.

Original languageEnglish
JournalExpert Review of Clinical Immunology
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Mar 2024

Keywords

  • connective tissue disease
  • Nailfold capillaroscopy
  • primary Raynaud’s phenomenon
  • raynaud’s disease
  • secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon
  • systemic sclerosis
  • videocapillaroscopy

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