Ratio estimation of the mean of a sensitive variable in the presence of auxiliary information

Rita Sousa, Javid Shabbir, Pedro Corte Real, Sat Gupta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


We propose a ratio estimator for the mean of sensitive variable utilizing information from a nonsensitive auxiliary variable. Expressions for the Bias and MSE of the proposed estimator (correct up to first and second order approximations) are derived. We show that the proposed estimator does better than the ordinary RRT mean estimator that does not utilize the auxiliary information. We also show that there is hardly any difference in the first order and second order approximations for MSE even for small sample sizes. We also generalize the proposed estimator to the case of transformed ratio estimators but these transformations do not result in any significant reduction in MSE. An extensive simulation study is presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed estimator. The procedure is also applied to some financial data (purchase orders (sensitive variable) and gross turn-over (non-sensitive variable)) in 2009 for 5090 companies in Portugal from a survey on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) usage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)495-507
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Statistical Theory and Practice
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • Absolute relative bias
  • Mean square error
  • Randomized response technique
  • Ratio estimator


Dive into the research topics of 'Ratio estimation of the mean of a sensitive variable in the presence of auxiliary information'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this