The Eucalyptus pathogen Quambalaria eucalypti has been reported from several subtropical and tropical countries of the Southern Hemisphere. During the course of a nationwide monitoring programme aimed at the detection of pathogens in commercial eucalypt plantations in Portugal, Q. eucalypti was found affecting Eucalyptus globulus. The identity of the pathogen was confirmed by sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA operon, as well as morphological characteristics. Quambalaria eucalypti is widespread throughout the eucalypt-producing areas of Portugal. Pathogenicity studies revealed that different host genotypes showed various degrees of susceptibility to the pathogen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Q. eucalypti on Eucalyptus spp. in Portugal and in the Northern Hemisphere.