Polyphenols are natural compounds present in fruits and vegetables that can exert beneficial effects on human health and notably, on the cardiovascular system. Some of these compounds showed significant protective activities toward atherosclerosis, hypertension, myocardial infarction, anthracyclin-induced cardiomyopathy, angiogenesis as well as heart failure. Polyphenols can act through systemic effects as well as through modulation of signaling pathways such as redox signaling, inflammation, autophagy and cell death in the heart and vessels. These effects can be mediated by changes in expression level and by post-translational modifications of proteins (e.g. Stat1, CaMKII, Sirtuins, BCL-2 family members, PDEs, TRF2, eNOS and SOD). This non-comprehensive short review aims to summarize recent knowledge on the main pharmacological effects and mechanisms of cardioprotection of pure polyphenols, using different approaches such as cell culture, animal models and human studies.
- cardiac health