Production of mycotoxins by filamentous fungi in untreated surface water

Beatriz R. Oliveira, Ana T. Mata, João P. Ferreira, Maria T. Barreto Crespo, Vanessa J. Pereira, Maria R. Bronze

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Several research studies reported that mycotoxins and other metabolites can be produced by fungi in certain matrices such as food. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the wide occurrence and identification of fungi in drinking water sources. Due to the large demand of water for drinking, watering, or food production purposes, it is imperative that further research is conducted to investigate if mycotoxins may be produced in water matrices. This paper describes the results obtained when a validated analytical method was applied to detect and quantify the presence of mycotoxins as a result of fungi inoculation and growth in untreated surface water. Aflatoxins B1 and B2, fumonisin B3, and ochratoxin A were detected at concentrations up to 35 ng/L. These results show that fungi can produce mycotoxins in water matrices in a non-negligible quantity and, as such, attention must be given to the presence of fungi in water.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17519-17528
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2018


  • Filamentous fungi
  • Mycotoxin production
  • SPE-LC-MS/MS method
  • Untreated surface water


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