Preliminary toxicological assessment of phthalate esters from drinking water consumed in Portugal

Jose Santana, Clara Giraudi, Emilio Marengo, Elisa Robotti, Sara Moreno Pires, Ines Nunes, Elvira Maria Mendes Sardão Monteiro Gaspar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper reports, for the first time, the concentra- tions of selected phthalates in drinking water consumed in Portugal. The use of bottled water in Portugal has increased in recent years. The main material for bottles is polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Its plasticizer components can contami- nate water by leaching, and several scientific studies have evidenced potential health risks of phthalates to humans of all ages. With water being one of the most essential elements to human health and because it is consumed by ingestion, the evaluation of drinking water quality, with respect to phthalate contents, is important. This study tested seven commercial brands of bottled water consumed in Portugal, six PET and one glass (the most consumed) bottled water. Furthermore, tap water from Lisbon and three small neighbor cities was ana- lyzed. Phthalates (di-n-butyl phthalate ester (DnBP), bis(2- ethylhexyl) phthalate ester (DEHP), and di-i-butyl phthalate ester(DIBP))inwatersampleswerequantified(PETandglass) by means of direct immersion solid-phase microextraction and ionic liquid gas chromatography associated with flame ionization detection or mass spectrometry due to their high boiling points and water solubility. The method utilized in this study showed a linear range for target phthalates between 0.02 and 6.5 μg L−1, good precision and low limits of detection that were between 0.01 and 0.06 μg L−1, and quantitation between 0.04 and 0.19 μg L−1. Only three phthalates were detected in Portuguese drinking waters: dibutyl (DnBP), diisobutyl (DIBP), and di(ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Concentrations ranged between 0.06 and 6.5 μg L−1for DnBP, between 0.02 and 0.16 μg L−1for DEHP, and between 0.1 and 1.89 μg L−1 for DIBP. The concentration of DEHP was found to be up to five times higher in PET than in glass bottled water. Surprisingly, all the three phthalates were detected in glass bottled water with the amount of DnBP being higher (6.5 μg L−1) than in PET bottled water. These concentrations do not represent direct risk to human health. Regarding potable tap water, only DIBP and DEHP were detected. Two of the citiesshowedconcentrationofallthreephthalatesintheirwater below the limits of detection of the method. All the samples showed phthalate concentrations below 6 μg L−1, the maxi- mum admissible concentration in water established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The concentrations mea- sured in Portuguese bottled waters do not represent any risk for adult's health.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1380-1390
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Volume21
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2014

Fingerprint

Portugal
Drinking Water
Toxicology
Dibutyl Phthalate
Esters
Polyethylene Terephthalates
Water
Glass
Health
phthalic acid
Limit of Detection
Diethylhexyl Phthalate
Flame Ionization
Plasticizers
Ionic Liquids
Solid Phase Microextraction
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Water Quality
Immersion
Liquid Chromatography

Keywords

  • Bottled water
  • DEHP
  • DIBP
  • DnBP
  • Drinking water
  • Ionic liquid gas chromatography (IL-GC)
  • Persistent organic pollutants
  • Phthalates (PAEs)
  • Portugal
  • Profiles

Cite this

Santana, Jose ; Giraudi, Clara ; Marengo, Emilio ; Robotti, Elisa ; Moreno Pires, Sara ; Nunes, Ines ; Gaspar, Elvira Maria Mendes Sardão Monteiro. / Preliminary toxicological assessment of phthalate esters from drinking water consumed in Portugal. In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2014 ; Vol. 21, No. 2. pp. 1380-1390.
@article{957caf42748341cb91fb29ce3d56e4fa,
title = "Preliminary toxicological assessment of phthalate esters from drinking water consumed in Portugal",
abstract = "This paper reports, for the first time, the concentra- tions of selected phthalates in drinking water consumed in Portugal. The use of bottled water in Portugal has increased in recent years. The main material for bottles is polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Its plasticizer components can contami- nate water by leaching, and several scientific studies have evidenced potential health risks of phthalates to humans of all ages. With water being one of the most essential elements to human health and because it is consumed by ingestion, the evaluation of drinking water quality, with respect to phthalate contents, is important. This study tested seven commercial brands of bottled water consumed in Portugal, six PET and one glass (the most consumed) bottled water. Furthermore, tap water from Lisbon and three small neighbor cities was ana- lyzed. Phthalates (di-n-butyl phthalate ester (DnBP), bis(2- ethylhexyl) phthalate ester (DEHP), and di-i-butyl phthalate ester(DIBP))inwatersampleswerequantified(PETandglass) by means of direct immersion solid-phase microextraction and ionic liquid gas chromatography associated with flame ionization detection or mass spectrometry due to their high boiling points and water solubility. The method utilized in this study showed a linear range for target phthalates between 0.02 and 6.5 μg L−1, good precision and low limits of detection that were between 0.01 and 0.06 μg L−1, and quantitation between 0.04 and 0.19 μg L−1. Only three phthalates were detected in Portuguese drinking waters: dibutyl (DnBP), diisobutyl (DIBP), and di(ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Concentrations ranged between 0.06 and 6.5 μg L−1for DnBP, between 0.02 and 0.16 μg L−1for DEHP, and between 0.1 and 1.89 μg L−1 for DIBP. The concentration of DEHP was found to be up to five times higher in PET than in glass bottled water. Surprisingly, all the three phthalates were detected in glass bottled water with the amount of DnBP being higher (6.5 μg L−1) than in PET bottled water. These concentrations do not represent direct risk to human health. Regarding potable tap water, only DIBP and DEHP were detected. Two of the citiesshowedconcentrationofallthreephthalatesintheirwater below the limits of detection of the method. All the samples showed phthalate concentrations below 6 μg L−1, the maxi- mum admissible concentration in water established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The concentrations mea- sured in Portuguese bottled waters do not represent any risk for adult's health.",
keywords = "Bottled water, DEHP, DIBP, DnBP, Drinking water, Ionic liquid gas chromatography (IL-GC), Persistent organic pollutants, Phthalates (PAEs), Portugal, Profiles",
author = "Jose Santana and Clara Giraudi and Emilio Marengo and Elisa Robotti and {Moreno Pires}, Sara and Ines Nunes and Gaspar, {Elvira Maria Mendes Sard{\~a}o Monteiro}",
note = "SCOPUSID:84891631333 PMID:23900955 WOS:000329243700056",
year = "2014",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s11356-013-2020-3",
language = "English",
volume = "21",
pages = "1380--1390",
journal = "Environmental Science and Pollution Research",
issn = "0944-1344",
publisher = "Springer Verlag",
number = "2",

}

Preliminary toxicological assessment of phthalate esters from drinking water consumed in Portugal. / Santana, Jose; Giraudi, Clara; Marengo, Emilio; Robotti, Elisa; Moreno Pires, Sara; Nunes, Ines; Gaspar, Elvira Maria Mendes Sardão Monteiro.

In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol. 21, No. 2, 01.2014, p. 1380-1390.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Preliminary toxicological assessment of phthalate esters from drinking water consumed in Portugal

AU - Santana, Jose

AU - Giraudi, Clara

AU - Marengo, Emilio

AU - Robotti, Elisa

AU - Moreno Pires, Sara

AU - Nunes, Ines

AU - Gaspar, Elvira Maria Mendes Sardão Monteiro

N1 - SCOPUSID:84891631333 PMID:23900955 WOS:000329243700056

PY - 2014/1

Y1 - 2014/1

N2 - This paper reports, for the first time, the concentra- tions of selected phthalates in drinking water consumed in Portugal. The use of bottled water in Portugal has increased in recent years. The main material for bottles is polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Its plasticizer components can contami- nate water by leaching, and several scientific studies have evidenced potential health risks of phthalates to humans of all ages. With water being one of the most essential elements to human health and because it is consumed by ingestion, the evaluation of drinking water quality, with respect to phthalate contents, is important. This study tested seven commercial brands of bottled water consumed in Portugal, six PET and one glass (the most consumed) bottled water. Furthermore, tap water from Lisbon and three small neighbor cities was ana- lyzed. Phthalates (di-n-butyl phthalate ester (DnBP), bis(2- ethylhexyl) phthalate ester (DEHP), and di-i-butyl phthalate ester(DIBP))inwatersampleswerequantified(PETandglass) by means of direct immersion solid-phase microextraction and ionic liquid gas chromatography associated with flame ionization detection or mass spectrometry due to their high boiling points and water solubility. The method utilized in this study showed a linear range for target phthalates between 0.02 and 6.5 μg L−1, good precision and low limits of detection that were between 0.01 and 0.06 μg L−1, and quantitation between 0.04 and 0.19 μg L−1. Only three phthalates were detected in Portuguese drinking waters: dibutyl (DnBP), diisobutyl (DIBP), and di(ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Concentrations ranged between 0.06 and 6.5 μg L−1for DnBP, between 0.02 and 0.16 μg L−1for DEHP, and between 0.1 and 1.89 μg L−1 for DIBP. The concentration of DEHP was found to be up to five times higher in PET than in glass bottled water. Surprisingly, all the three phthalates were detected in glass bottled water with the amount of DnBP being higher (6.5 μg L−1) than in PET bottled water. These concentrations do not represent direct risk to human health. Regarding potable tap water, only DIBP and DEHP were detected. Two of the citiesshowedconcentrationofallthreephthalatesintheirwater below the limits of detection of the method. All the samples showed phthalate concentrations below 6 μg L−1, the maxi- mum admissible concentration in water established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The concentrations mea- sured in Portuguese bottled waters do not represent any risk for adult's health.

AB - This paper reports, for the first time, the concentra- tions of selected phthalates in drinking water consumed in Portugal. The use of bottled water in Portugal has increased in recent years. The main material for bottles is polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Its plasticizer components can contami- nate water by leaching, and several scientific studies have evidenced potential health risks of phthalates to humans of all ages. With water being one of the most essential elements to human health and because it is consumed by ingestion, the evaluation of drinking water quality, with respect to phthalate contents, is important. This study tested seven commercial brands of bottled water consumed in Portugal, six PET and one glass (the most consumed) bottled water. Furthermore, tap water from Lisbon and three small neighbor cities was ana- lyzed. Phthalates (di-n-butyl phthalate ester (DnBP), bis(2- ethylhexyl) phthalate ester (DEHP), and di-i-butyl phthalate ester(DIBP))inwatersampleswerequantified(PETandglass) by means of direct immersion solid-phase microextraction and ionic liquid gas chromatography associated with flame ionization detection or mass spectrometry due to their high boiling points and water solubility. The method utilized in this study showed a linear range for target phthalates between 0.02 and 6.5 μg L−1, good precision and low limits of detection that were between 0.01 and 0.06 μg L−1, and quantitation between 0.04 and 0.19 μg L−1. Only three phthalates were detected in Portuguese drinking waters: dibutyl (DnBP), diisobutyl (DIBP), and di(ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Concentrations ranged between 0.06 and 6.5 μg L−1for DnBP, between 0.02 and 0.16 μg L−1for DEHP, and between 0.1 and 1.89 μg L−1 for DIBP. The concentration of DEHP was found to be up to five times higher in PET than in glass bottled water. Surprisingly, all the three phthalates were detected in glass bottled water with the amount of DnBP being higher (6.5 μg L−1) than in PET bottled water. These concentrations do not represent direct risk to human health. Regarding potable tap water, only DIBP and DEHP were detected. Two of the citiesshowedconcentrationofallthreephthalatesintheirwater below the limits of detection of the method. All the samples showed phthalate concentrations below 6 μg L−1, the maxi- mum admissible concentration in water established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The concentrations mea- sured in Portuguese bottled waters do not represent any risk for adult's health.

KW - Bottled water

KW - DEHP

KW - DIBP

KW - DnBP

KW - Drinking water

KW - Ionic liquid gas chromatography (IL-GC)

KW - Persistent organic pollutants

KW - Phthalates (PAEs)

KW - Portugal

KW - Profiles

U2 - 10.1007/s11356-013-2020-3

DO - 10.1007/s11356-013-2020-3

M3 - Article

VL - 21

SP - 1380

EP - 1390

JO - Environmental Science and Pollution Research

JF - Environmental Science and Pollution Research

SN - 0944-1344

IS - 2

ER -