Background Endotherapy of postcholecystectomy bile duct stricture (PCBS) has been established as an alternative treatment to surgery. Several studies have reported conflicting results regarding the predictors of success or failure of endotherapy. Objective To evaluate the different cholangioscopic appearances of PCBS after endotherapy with an increasing number of plastic stents and the predictive values of these appearances for the outcome. Design Prospective study with a long-term follow-up. Setting Two academic tertiary referral centers. Patients Twenty consecutive patients with major bile duct injury, with a bile leak, and a PCBS who underwent therapeutic ERCP. Interventions Closure of the leak followed by temporary placement of multiple plastic stents for the treatment of PCBS, followed by cholangioscopy at the end of endotherapy. Main Outcome Measurements To analyze the predictive value of cholangioscopy, other predictors of stricture recurrence after endotherapy, and long-term clinical success. Results Closure of the leak was achieved in all patients. The median duration of endotherapy was 12 months (range 7-18 months). After endoscopic stenting, the PCBS was considered to be appropriately dilated in all patients. After endotherapy, 3 different findings were noted on cholangioscopy: (1) no lesion or minor defect (n = 10), (2) minor stricture with a fibrous ring (n = 6), and (3) presence of tissue hyperplasia (n = 4). During follow-up, stricture recurrence developed in 4 of 20 patients. All 4 patients were successfully retreated by an additional period of stenting and remained free of cholestasis after a median follow-up period of 44 months. By Kaplan-Meier (log-rank) and univariate analyses, the cholangioscopic pattern of tissue hyperplasia was significantly associated with stricture recurrence (P <.01). Limitations Small sample size. Conclusions Endoscopic stenting should be regarded as the primary treatment of choice because of the successful long-term outcome after 1 or more additional periods of treatment. However, the cholangioscopic pattern of tissue hyperplasia at the time of stent removal is a strong predictor of stricture recurrence, and this observation may lead to an additional period of endotherapy or other treatment modalities.