Predicting Cellular Rejection of Renal Allograft Based on the Serum Proteomic Fingerprint

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Kidney transplantation is an essential medical procedure that significantly enhances the survival rates and quality of life for patients with end-stage kidney disease. However, despite advancements in immunosuppressive therapies, allograft rejection remains a leading cause of organ loss. Notably, predictions of cellular rejection processes primarily rely on biopsy analysis, which is not routinely performed due to its invasive nature. The present work evaluates if the serum proteomic fingerprint, as acquired by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, can predict cellular rejection processes. We analyzed 28 serum samples, corresponding to 17 without cellular rejection processes and 11 associated with cellular rejection processes, as based on biopsy analyses. The leave-one-out-cross validation procedure of a Naïve Bayes model enabled the prediction of cellular rejection processes with high sensitivity and specificity (AUC > 0.984). The serum proteomic profile was obtained in a high-throughput mode and based on a simple, rapid, and economical procedure, making it suitable for routine analyses and large-scale studies. Consequently, the current method presents a high potential to predict cellular rejection processes translatable to clinical scenarios, and that should continue to be explored.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3844
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024


  • cellular rejection
  • FTIR spectroscopy
  • kidney allograft
  • proteomic fingerprint


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