Possible applications for municipal solid waste fly ash

Celia Ferreira, Alexandra B. Ribeiro, L. Ottosen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

324 Citations (Scopus)


The present study focuses on existing practices related to the reuse of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) fly ash and identifies new potential uses. Nine possible applications were identified and grouped into four main categories: construction materials (cement, concrete, ceramics, glass and glass-ceramics); geotechnical applications (road pavement, embankments); "agriculture" (soil amendment); and, miscellaneous (sorbent, sludge conditioning). Each application is analysed in detail, including final-product technical characteristics, with a special emphasis on environmental impacts. A comparative analysis of the different options is performed, stressing the advantages but also the weaknesses of each option. This information is systemized in order to provide a framework for the selection of best technology and final products. The results presented here show new possibilities for this waste reuse in a short-term, in a wide range of fields, resulting in great advantages in waste minimization as well as resources conservation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)201-216
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Issue number2-3
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jan 2003


  • Fly ash
  • Hazardous waste
  • Incineration
  • Treatment of hazardous materials
  • Waste management
  • Waste recycling
  • Waste valorisation


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