Poly(ionic liquids) in solid phase microextraction: Recent advances and perspectives

David J.S. Patinha, Armando J.D. Silvestre, Isabel M. Marrucho

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


During the last years, poly(ionic liquids) (PILs) have been gaining increased attention as materials for analytical chemistry. This success is due to the fact that PILs synthesis is generally based on the polymerization of ionic liquid monomers (ILMs), and thus some of their remarkable properties are shared with their polymeric form. Consequently, the facile design of task-specific ILMs led to an important platform to design new materials for solid phase microextraction (SPME). In this review, a critical evaluation of the main breakthroughs on the use of PILs as extraction phases for SPME. In particular, this critical review covers from ILMs/PILs synthesis, fiber coating processes, surface modifications (silica and metallic supports), to extraction modes, analytes categories, type of equipment ending with a discussion on limitations and future perspectives. PILs are undoubtedly competing in the frontline as inspiring materials for SPME.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101148
JournalProgress In Polymer Science
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019


  • Direct immersion
  • Extraction phase
  • Headspace
  • Metallic support
  • Poly(ionic liquids)
  • Polymerization
  • Solid phase microextraction
  • Sorbent material
  • Surface modification


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