Plasma-enabled multifunctional platform for gram-scale production of graphene and derivatives

Ana Dias , Edgar Felizardo, Neli Bundaleska, Miroslav Abrashev, Jivko Kissovski, Ana M. Ferraria, Ana M. Rego, Thomas Strunskus, Patrícia A. Carvalho, Amélia Almeida, Janez Zavašnik, Eva Kovacevic, Johannes Berndt, Nenad Bundaleski, Mohammed Ramzi Ammar, Orlando M. N. D. Teodoro, Uroš Cvelbar, Luís L. Alves, Bruno Gonçalves, Elena Tatarova

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Taking advantage of the high-energy-density microwave plasma environment as a unique 3D space for the self-assembly of free-standing nanostructures, a novel multifunctional platform for the continuous production of graphene and derivatives at the gram scale was developed. The platform is supported by a prototype plasma machine capable of performing a wide variety of industrially applicable processes within a single assembly environment. Free-standing graphene and nitrogen doped graphene, i.e., N-graphene nanosheets, and hybrid nanocomposites are assembled in a one-step process in seconds under atmospheric pressure conditions without the need of post-treatment. A single custom-designed machine enables the synthesis of an extensive array of hybrid nanomaterials featuring metal nanoparticles anchored in graphene. The method enables the conversion of a wide range of low-cost feedstock (e.g., ethanol, acetonitrile, etc.) into graphene and derivatives at a rate up to 30 mg/min. The resulting N-graphene sheets exhibit high quality, as evidenced by the highest reported presence of single atomic layers (45%), high ratio of 2D/G peak intensities in Raman spectra and N/O atomic ratio greater than one. The use of the obtained N-graphene in low secondary electron emission applications and in inkjet printing are explored. The presented plasma machine embodies significant potential to increase the effectiveness of plasma-driven process regarding productivity, costs and turnaround time.
Original languageEnglish
Article number102056
Number of pages12
JournalApplied Materials Today
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


  • Graphene applications
  • Graphene/n-graphene
  • Hybrids
  • Microwave plasmas
  • Self-assembly


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