The pig (Sus scrofa) is one of the most important animal species used for meat production worldwide, playing a fundamental role in numerous cultures from Southern Europe to the Pacific Islands. Additionally, it is broadly used as an experimental animal for several purposes, from physiological studies to drug testing and surgical training. Proteomics studies have covered both physiological and biomedical application studies of pig to a much greater extent than for any other farm animal. Despite this fact, no review seems to be available on the application of proteomics to production aspects in pig. The aim of this article is to provide a review on such applications of proteomics to the pig species. The article is divided in three parts. The first is dedicated to productive characterization and includes aspects related to reproduction and meat science. The second concerns the management of health and disease in production. Finally, the third part concerns the use of the pig as a model organism in biomedical research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Farm animal proteomics.