Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance of bacteria include efflux pumps which extrude the antibiotic prior to reaching its target. Phenothiazines inhibit the activity of some efflux pumps thereby altering the susceptibility of bacteria. This study demonstrated that chlorpromazine and thioridazine reduce the susceptibility of methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA) but not that of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains to oxacillin (MIC of oxacillin reduced from >500 to 10 mg/l). Reserpine, an inhibitor of antibiotic efflux pumps also reduced the resistance of MRSA strains to oxacillin suggesting the presence of an efflux pump that contributes to antibiotic resistance of MRSA strains.
- Methicillin and fluoroquinolone resistance
- Reversal of antibiotic resistance
- Staphylococcus aureus