Microalgae industrial production is viewed as a solution for alternative production of nutraceuticals, cosmetics, biofertilizers, and biopolymers. Throughout the years, several technological advances have been implemented, increasing the competitiveness of microalgae industry. However, online monitoring and real-time process control of a microalgae production factory still require further development. In this mini-review, non-destructive tools for online monitoring of cellular agriculture applications are described. Still, the focus is on the use of fluorescence spectroscopy to monitor several parameters (cell concentration, pigments, and lipids) in the microalgae industry. The development presented makes it the most promising solution for monitoring up-and downstream processes, different biological parameters simultaneously, and different microalgae species. The improvements needed for industrial application of this technology are also discussed.