Perceived success of hybrid microorganizations in a contested category

Marta Bicho, Ralitza Nikolaeva, Fernando A.F. Ferreira, Carmen Lages

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


The organizational literature privileges objective performance indicators often selected by researchers. There is scarce research focusing on legitimacy-challenged hybrid and microorganizations and on perceived success under exigent conditions. To address this scarcity, this study, conducted among complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) microorganizations, explores success as a subjective measure originating from managers’ perceptions. For the purpose, it integrates cognitive mapping and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA)—a methodological contribution to construct a subjective-success framework that can be helpful for contested hybrid microorganizations. Seven factors emerged, of which human capital is recognized as critical, while external factors are considered unimportant.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)859-891
JournalJournal of Small Business Management
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022


  • cognitive mapping
  • complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)
  • hybrid organizations
  • Microorganizations
  • multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA)
  • subjective perceived success


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