Patient reported outcomes for phosphomannomutase 2 congenital disorder of glycosylation (PMM2-CDG): listening to what matters for the patients and health professionals

C. Pascoal, I. Ferreira, C. Teixeira, E. Almeida, A. Slade, S. Brasil, R. Francisco, A. N. Ligezka, E. Morava, H. Plotkin, J. Jaeken, P. A. Videira, L. Barros, V. dos Reis Ferreira

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Background: Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a growing group of rare genetic disorders. The most common CDG is phosphomannomutase 2 (PMM2)-CDG which often has a severe clinical presentation and life-limiting consequences. There are no approved therapies for this condition. Also, there are no validated disease-specific quality of life (QoL) scales to assess the heterogeneous clinical burden of PMM2-CDG which presents a challenge for the assessment of the disease severity and the impact of a certain treatment on the course of the disease. Aim and methods: This study aimed to identify the most impactful clinical signs and symptoms of PMM2-CDG, and specific patient and observer reported outcome measures (PROMs and ObsROMs, respectively) that can adequately measure such impact on patients’ QoL. The most burdensome signs and symptoms were identified through input from the CDG community using a survey targeting PMM2-CDG families and experts, followed by family interviews to understand the real burden of these symptoms in daily life. The list of signs and symptoms was then verified and refined by patient representatives and medical experts in the field. Finally, a literature search for PROMs and ObsROMs used in other rare or common diseases with similar signs and symptoms to those of PMM2-CDG was performed. Results: Twenty-four signs/symptoms were identified as the most impactful throughout PMM2-CDG patients’ lifetime. We found 239 articles that included tools to measure those community-selected PMM2-CDG symptoms. Among them, we identified 80 QoL scales that address those signs and symptoms and, subsequently, their psychometric quality was analysed. These scales could be applied directly to the PMM2-CDG population or adapted to create the first PMM2-CDG-specific QoL questionnaire. Conclusion: Identifying the impactful clinical manifestations of PMM2-CDG, along with the collection of PROMs/ObsROMs assessing QoL using a creative and community-centric methodology are the first step towards the development of a new, tailored, and specific PMM2-CDG QoL questionnaire. These findings can be used to fill a gap in PMM2-CDG clinical development. Importantly, this methodology is transferable to other CDG and rare diseases with multiple signs and symptoms.

Original languageEnglish
Article number398
Number of pages22
JournalOrphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Observer reported outcomes
  • Outcome assessment
  • Patient reported outcomes
  • People-centricity
  • PMM2-CDG
  • Quality of life
  • Rare diseases


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