Paracentral acute middle maculopathy—review of the literature

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22 Citations (Scopus)


Paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) is a recently identified spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) finding characterized by a hyper-reflective band spanning the inner nuclear layer (INL), which typically evolves to INL atrophy in later stages. Typical clinical features include the sudden onset of one or multiple paracentral scotomas, normal or mild reduction in visual acuity, and a normal fundus appearance or a fundus with a deep grayish lesion. Although its pathophysiology is not yet fully understood, ischemia at the level of the intermediate and deep capillary plexa has been demonstrated to play a major role. Since its first description, an increasing number of publications on PAMM have been published in ophthalmology scientific journals. The purpose of this study is to provide a review of the current literature on PAMM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to) 2583-2596
JournalGraefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Issue number12
Early online dateJul 2020
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • Deep capillary ischemia
  • Paracentral acute middle maculopathy
  • Retinal imaging
  • Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, optical coherence tomography angiography


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