Oxalate is a metabolic end-product whose systemic concentrations are highly variable among individuals. Genetic (primary hyperoxaluria) and non-genetic (e.g., diet, microbiota, renal and metabolic disease) reasons underlie elevated plasma concentrations and tissue accumulation of oxalate, which is toxic to the body. A classic example is the triad of primary hyperoxaluria, nephrolithiasis, and kidney injury. Lessons learned from this example suggest further investigation of other putative factors associated with oxalate dysmetabolism, namely the identification of precursors (glyoxylate, aromatic amino acids, glyoxal and vitamin C), the regulation of the endogenous pathways that produce oxalate, or the microbiota’s contribution to oxalate systemic availability. The association between secondary nephrolithiasis and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and obesity) inspired the authors to perform this comprehensive review about oxalate dysmetabolism and its relation to cardiometabolic toxicity. This perspective may offer something substantial that helps advance understanding of effective management and draws attention to the novel class of treatments available in clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1719
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023


  • cardiovascular disease
  • hyperoxaluria
  • hypertension
  • kidney disease
  • kidney stones
  • metabolic disease
  • microbiota
  • nephrolithiasis
  • obstructive sleep apnea
  • pharmacology
  • systemic inflammation


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