Emerging organic contaminants (EOC) are synthetic or naturally occurring chemicals that have the potential to enter the environment and cause known or suspected adverse ecological and human health effects. Despite not being commonly monitored, EOC are often detected in effluents and water bodies because of their inefficient removal in conventional wastewater treatment plants. There is a growing concern about the presence and impact of EOC as well as the need for reliable and effective water monitoring using sensors capable of detecting the target molecules in complex media. Due to their specificities, such as fast response times, low cost, portability and user-friendly operation, electronic tongue (e-tongue) systems present some advantages over the traditional analytical techniques (e.g., chromatographic systems) used for environmental monitoring. We reviewed e-tongue sensors, focusing on their ability for real-time environmental monitoring. A bibliometric evaluation was carried out, along with a study of the status of the existing e-tongue systems, how they worked, and their applications in different fields. The potential of e-tongue sensors to detect organic contaminants in aqueous environmental matrices is discussed, with a particular focus on EOC.
- Electronic tongue
- Emergent organic contaminants
- Environmental monitoring sensing
- Pharmaceuticals and personal care products