Structure, optical and photocatalytic properties for wide band gap oxide doped zinc oxide are investigated by XRD, ESR and UV-visible spectroscopy. It was shown the introduction of Al2O3 or ZrO2 led to form of structural defects in zinc oxide matrix. According ESR data a small amount of ZrO2 (0.01 mol.%) in ZnO forms a defects of donor nature, while the same amount of Al2O3 in ZnO matrix led forming as acceptor and as donor defects. Observed tail and shift of optical band gap confirmed ESR data. It was shown the increasing of donor defects in structure ZnO led to increase of photocatalytic activity to phenol degradation. It was shown the dopant types also determined a kind of intermediates of phenol degradation and possible mechanism. For Ag-decorated doped ZnO it is also shown that mechanism of phenol degradation contain a redox cycle. It was shown the bactericide activity of Ag-decorated ZrO2-doped ZnO to S.aureus is better than E.coli.