On operation of reverse electrodialysis (RED) and membrane capacitive deionisation (MCDI) with natural saline streams: A critical review

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Environment-friendly production of power and clean water is one of the major goals of 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and can be achieved by emerging electromembrane processes, such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) and membrane capacitive deionisation (MCDI). RED generates electricity from salinity gradient energy sources, while MCDI desalinates (mainly) brackish water. However, fouling, scaling, stack channels clogging and undesired uphill ionic transport can reduce the power output and salt removal efficiency in RED and MCDI, respectively. A practical overview of current problems and challenges of operating and monitoring these processes under real conditions is provided. Appropriate mitigation approaches, which might include feed water pre-treatment, in-situ cleaning strategies and/or development of new antifouling ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) are disclosed. First, a description, analysis and (when possible) normalised comparison of the performance of available RED and MCDI stacks, employing natural saline streams, is presented. Afterwards, it is discussed how fouling formation can be detected, monitored and characterised, which is essential to implement effective pre-treatment and cleaning strategies. Finally, sustainable ways for preparation of appropriate IEMs are selected and presented.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114183
JournalDesalination
Volume476
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2020

Fingerprint

Electrodialysis
membrane
Membranes
Ion exchange membranes
Fouling
Cleaning
Salt removal
Water
fouling
ion exchange
Process monitoring
Sustainable development
Electricity
antifouling
brackish water
electricity
sustainable development
mitigation
salt
salinity

Keywords

  • Fouling
  • Ion exchange membranes (IEMs)
  • Ionic transport
  • Membrane capacitive deionisation (MCDI)
  • Reverse electrodialysis (RED)

Cite this

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title = "On operation of reverse electrodialysis (RED) and membrane capacitive deionisation (MCDI) with natural saline streams: A critical review",
abstract = "Environment-friendly production of power and clean water is one of the major goals of 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and can be achieved by emerging electromembrane processes, such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) and membrane capacitive deionisation (MCDI). RED generates electricity from salinity gradient energy sources, while MCDI desalinates (mainly) brackish water. However, fouling, scaling, stack channels clogging and undesired uphill ionic transport can reduce the power output and salt removal efficiency in RED and MCDI, respectively. A practical overview of current problems and challenges of operating and monitoring these processes under real conditions is provided. Appropriate mitigation approaches, which might include feed water pre-treatment, in-situ cleaning strategies and/or development of new antifouling ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) are disclosed. First, a description, analysis and (when possible) normalised comparison of the performance of available RED and MCDI stacks, employing natural saline streams, is presented. Afterwards, it is discussed how fouling formation can be detected, monitored and characterised, which is essential to implement effective pre-treatment and cleaning strategies. Finally, sustainable ways for preparation of appropriate IEMs are selected and presented.",
keywords = "Fouling, Ion exchange membranes (IEMs), Ionic transport, Membrane capacitive deionisation (MCDI), Reverse electrodialysis (RED)",
author = "Sylwin Pawlowski and Huertas, {Rosa M.} and Galinha, {Cl{\'a}udia F.} and Crespo, {Jo{\~a}o G.} and Svetlozar Velizarov",
note = "PTDC/EQU-EPQ/29579/2017. UID/QUI/50006/2019. CEECIND/01617/2017. Sem PDF conforme despacho.",
year = "2020",
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doi = "10.1016/j.desal.2019.114183",
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journal = "Desalination",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - On operation of reverse electrodialysis (RED) and membrane capacitive deionisation (MCDI) with natural saline streams: A critical review

AU - Pawlowski, Sylwin

AU - Huertas, Rosa M.

AU - Galinha, Cláudia F.

AU - Crespo, João G.

AU - Velizarov, Svetlozar

N1 - PTDC/EQU-EPQ/29579/2017. UID/QUI/50006/2019. CEECIND/01617/2017. Sem PDF conforme despacho.

PY - 2020/2/15

Y1 - 2020/2/15

N2 - Environment-friendly production of power and clean water is one of the major goals of 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and can be achieved by emerging electromembrane processes, such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) and membrane capacitive deionisation (MCDI). RED generates electricity from salinity gradient energy sources, while MCDI desalinates (mainly) brackish water. However, fouling, scaling, stack channels clogging and undesired uphill ionic transport can reduce the power output and salt removal efficiency in RED and MCDI, respectively. A practical overview of current problems and challenges of operating and monitoring these processes under real conditions is provided. Appropriate mitigation approaches, which might include feed water pre-treatment, in-situ cleaning strategies and/or development of new antifouling ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) are disclosed. First, a description, analysis and (when possible) normalised comparison of the performance of available RED and MCDI stacks, employing natural saline streams, is presented. Afterwards, it is discussed how fouling formation can be detected, monitored and characterised, which is essential to implement effective pre-treatment and cleaning strategies. Finally, sustainable ways for preparation of appropriate IEMs are selected and presented.

AB - Environment-friendly production of power and clean water is one of the major goals of 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and can be achieved by emerging electromembrane processes, such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) and membrane capacitive deionisation (MCDI). RED generates electricity from salinity gradient energy sources, while MCDI desalinates (mainly) brackish water. However, fouling, scaling, stack channels clogging and undesired uphill ionic transport can reduce the power output and salt removal efficiency in RED and MCDI, respectively. A practical overview of current problems and challenges of operating and monitoring these processes under real conditions is provided. Appropriate mitigation approaches, which might include feed water pre-treatment, in-situ cleaning strategies and/or development of new antifouling ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) are disclosed. First, a description, analysis and (when possible) normalised comparison of the performance of available RED and MCDI stacks, employing natural saline streams, is presented. Afterwards, it is discussed how fouling formation can be detected, monitored and characterised, which is essential to implement effective pre-treatment and cleaning strategies. Finally, sustainable ways for preparation of appropriate IEMs are selected and presented.

KW - Fouling

KW - Ion exchange membranes (IEMs)

KW - Ionic transport

KW - Membrane capacitive deionisation (MCDI)

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DO - 10.1016/j.desal.2019.114183

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