On-off keying and Manchester coding in a visible light communication link

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Increasing interest in indoor navigation has recently been generated by devices with wireless communication capabilities that enabled a wide range of applications and services. The rise of the Internet of Things (IoT) and the inherent end-to-end connectivity of billions of devices is very attractive for indoor localization and proximity detection. Other fields, such as, marketing and customer assistance, health services, asset management and tracking, can also benefit from indoor localization. Different techniques and wireless technologies have been proposed for indoor location, as the traditional Global Positioning System (GPS) has a very poor, unreliable performance in a closed space. The work presented in this research proposes the use of an indoor localization system based on Visible Light Communication (VLC) to support the navigation and operational tasks of Autonomous Guided Vehicles (AVG) in an automated warehouse. The research is mainly focused on the development of the navigation VLC system, transmission of control data information and decoding techniques. As part of the communication system, trichromatic white LEDs are used as emitters and a-SiC:H/a-Si:H based photodiodes with selective spectral sensitivity, are used as receivers. Through the modulation of the RGB LEDs, the downlink channel establishes an infrastructure-to-vehicle link (I2V) and provides position information to the vehicle. The decoding strategy is based on accurate calibration of the output signal. Characterization of the transmitters and receivers, description of the coding schemes and the use of different modulations will be the focus of discussion in this paper.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNext-Generation Optical Communication
Subtitle of host publicationComponents, Sub-Systems, and Systems XII
EditorsGuifang Li, Kazuhide Nakajima, Atul K. Srivastava
PublisherSPIE-International Society for Optical Engineering
ISBN (Electronic)978-151065963-6
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2023
EventNext-Generation Optical Communication: Components, Sub-Systems, and Systems XII 2023 - San Francisco, United States
Duration: 31 Jan 20232 Feb 2023

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceNext-Generation Optical Communication: Components, Sub-Systems, and Systems XII 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco


  • Footprint maps
  • Manchester codes
  • On-off keying
  • Visible light communication


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