Olive pomace phenolic compounds stability and safety evaluation: From raw material to future ophthalmic applications

Nikolaos Katsinas, Amalia Enríquez-De-salamanca, Andreia Bento da Silva, Maria Rosário Bronze, Soraya Rodríguez-Rojo

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Nowadays, increasing interest in olive pomace (OP) valorization aims to improve olive’s industry sustainability. Interestingly, several studies propose a high-value application for OP extracts containing its main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, as therapy for ocular surface diseases. In this work, the stability and accessibility of OP total phenolic and flavonoid content, main representative compounds, and antioxidant activity were assessed under different pretreatment conditions. Among them, lyophilization and supercritical CO2 extraction were found to increase significantly most responses measured in the produced extracts. Two selected extracts (CONV and OPT3) were obtained by different techniques (conventional and pressurized liquid ex-traction); Their aqueous solutions were characterized by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Additionally, their safety and stability were evaluated according to EMA requirements towards their approval as ophthalmic products: their genotoxic effect on ocular surface cells and their 6-months storage stability at 4 different temperature/moisture conditions (CPMP/ICH/2736/99), together with pure hydroxy-tyrosol and oleuropein solutions. The concentration of hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein in pure or extract solutions was tracked, and possible degradation products were putatively identified by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein had different stability as standard or extract solutions, with oleuropein also showing different degradation profile. All compounds/extracts were safe for ophthalmic use at the concentrations tested.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6002
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 2 Oct 2021


  • Genotoxicity assay
  • Hydroxytyrosol
  • Oleuropein
  • Olive pomace
  • Phenolic extracts
  • Storage stability


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