Aims: To undertake a prospective analysis of the occurrence of colistin-resistant and extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacterales colonizing pigs at two farms in Portugal, and to evaluate the putative correlations with usage of different antibiotics. Materials and methods: One hundred and two faecal samples recovered from two different Portuguese pig farms were screened for polymyxin-resistant and ESBL-positive Enterobacterales. The authors had undertaken a study at one of the farms previously, but the use of colistin has since been banned; zinc oxide and amoxicillin are used as prophylactic and curative drugs, respectively, at this farm. The other farm included in this study used zinc oxide alone. Results: Ninety-three ESBL-producing isolates (62 Escherichia coli, 29 Klebsiella pneumoniae, one Enterobacter aerogenes and one Enterobacter cloacae) and 17 colistin-resistant isolates (12 E. coli, four K. pneumoniae and one E. cloacae) were recovered. Among the ESBL producers, the majority (84%) produced CTX-M-15, while the others produced CTX-M-1 or CTX-M-9. Many different strain and plasmid backgrounds were identified, ruling out a massive dissemination of one major clone. In total, 17 colistin-resistant isolates were recovered, all from the first farm. All produced MCR-1, corresponding to 12 E. coli (10 clones) and three K. pneumoniae (two clones). The MCR-1 producers were all recovered from the farm where colistin had been used 2 years previously. Conclusion: This study showed a surprisingly high rate of CTX-M-15 producers at two Portuguese pig farms. A link was found between antibiotic selective pressure (ß-lactam or polymyxin) and the corresponding resistance rate.