Obstructive Sleep Apnea: a risk for uncontrolled and more severe asthma in adults that we should keep an eye on

G Martins Dos Santos, P Simão Coelho, J Gaspar Marques, S Serranho, S Santos, A Brito, P Carreiro Martins, P Leiria Pinto

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Abstract

Background. Asthma control can be influenced by several factors, including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The literature reports variable prevalence and magnitude of OSA impact on asthma outcomes. The aim of our study is to analyze the frequency of high-risk for OSA in asthma patients and its impact on disease severity and control. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study at an Allergy Department with adult asthma patients recruited while undergoing routine lung function tests. Data on sex, age, body mass index, allergen sensitization, smoking habits, risk of OSA (using the Berlin questionnaire), rhinitis control (through CARAT), asthma severity (based on GINA 2023), asthma control (using the ACT), adherence to asthma treatment (through Treatment Adherence Measure) and pulmonary function test results were collected. Results. We included 216 patients, predominantly women (70.4%), with a median (P25-P75) age of 29.0 (21.0-45.0) years, of whom 28.2% were on GINA treatment levels 4-5. In 75.5% of cases asthma was controlled. High-risk for OSA was identified in 21.8% of patients. Asthma patients with high-risk for OSA were more likely to have uncontrolled [(47.8%; n = 22) vs (15.8%; n = 26); p less than 0.001] and more severe disease [(44.7%; n = 21) vs (23.7%; n = 40), p = 0.006]. In multivariable analysis, high-risk for OSA (OR 2.81 [95%CI 1.1.28-6.17], p = 0.010), sex (women) (OR 5.21 [95% CI 1.70-15.96], p = 0.004), uncontrolled rhinitis (OR 3.65 [95%CI 1.38-9.64], p = 0.009) and GINA asthma treatment steps 4-5 (OR 2.46 [95%CI 1.15-5.26], p = 0.020) were associated with uncontrolled asthma. Conclusions. It is crucial to actively investigate OSA, especially in patients with uncontrolled and more severe forms of asthma.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean annals of allergy and clinical immunology
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 15 Jan 2024

Keywords

  • Asthma
  • comorbidity
  • obesity
  • respiratory function tests
  • sleep apnea syndromes

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