Novel sampling methods for monitoring Anopheles arabiensis from Eritrea

Jacques D. Charlwood, Amanuel Kidane Andegiorgish, Yonatan Estifanos Asfaha, Liya Tekle Weldu, Feven Petros, Lidia Legese, Robel Afewerki, Selam Mihreteab, Corey LeClair, Ayubo Kampango

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Studies comparing novel collection methods for host seeking and resting mosquitoes A. arabiensis were undertaken in a village in Eritrea. Techniques included an odor baited trap, a novel tent-Trap, human landing collection and three methods of resting collection. A technique for the collection of mosquitoes exiting vegetation is also described. Pre-gravid rates were determined by dissection of host seeking insects and post-prandial egg development among insects collected resting. Results: Overall 5,382 host-seeking, 2,296 resting and 357 A. arabiensis exiting vegetation were collected. The Furvela tent-Trap was the most efficient, risk-free method for the collection of outdoor host-seeking insects, whilst the Suna trap was the least effective method. Mechanical aspirators (the CDC backpack or the Prokopack aspirator) were superior to manual aspiration in a dark shelter but there was no advantage over manual aspiration in a well-lit one. An estimated two-Thirds of newly-emerged mosquitoes went through a pre-gravid phase, feeding twice before producing eggs.Mosquitoes completed gonotrophic development in a dark shelter but left a well-lit shelter soon after feeding. One blood-fed female marked in the village was recaptured 2 days after release exiting vegetation close to the oviposition site and another, shortly after oviposition, attempting to feed on a human host 3 days after release. Exit rates of males from vegetation peaked 3 min after the initial male had left. Unfed and gravid females exited approximately 6 min after the first males. Conclusions: Furvela tent-Traps are suitable for the collection of outdoor biting A. arabiensis in Eritrea whilst the Prokopack sampler is the method of choice for the collection of resting insects. Constructing well-lit, rather than dark, animal shelters, may encourage otherwise endophilic mosquitoes to leave and so reduce their survival and hence their vectorial capacity.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere11497
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


  • Anopheles arabiensis
  • Capture-recapture
  • Eritrea
  • Exit collection
  • Malaria control
  • Outdoor sampling
  • Resting behaviour
  • Tent-Trap


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