Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia, caused by activating mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene, is characterized by hypocalcemia with an inappropriately low concentration of parathyroid hormone (PTH). In this report, we describe the identification of a novel missense mutation in the CASR gene, in a boy with autosomal dominant hypocalcemia. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand and DNA sequencing revealed a heterozygous mutation in CASR gene that causes a leucine substitution for serine at codon 123 (p.Leu123Ser). This mutation was absent in DNA from 50 control patients. In silico studies suggest that the identified variant was likely pathogenic. Sequencing analysis in the mother suggested mosaicism for the same variant, and she was clinically and biochemically unaffected. Clinical manifestations of the index case started with seizures at 14 months of age; cognitive impairment and several neuropsychological disabilities were noted during childhood. Extrapyramidal signs and basal ganglia calcification developed later, namely, hand tremor and rigidity at the age of 7 and 18 years, respectively. Laboratory analysis revealed hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and low-serum PTH with hypomagnesemia and mild hypercalciuria. After 2 years of treatment with calcium supplements and calcitriol, some brief periods of clinical improvement were reported; as well as an absence of nephrocalcinosis.
- autosomal dominant hypocalcemia
- calcium-sensing receptor
- missense mutation