Normas na terapeutica da insuficiencia cardiaca: Importancia da individualizacao no tratamento

Translated title of the contribution: Guidelines on heart failure treatment: The need to tailor the therapy

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Heart failure therapy has evolved significantly in recent years, allowing a prolonged survival and better quality of life. However, mortality and morbidity remain high, with enormous costs for the community. The incidence and prevalence of heart failure are increasing in Europe and the United States, predominantly in the elderly. The etiology of heart failure is different nowadays, with about 60% of the patients suffering from coronary artery disease. Modern treatment of heart failure involves general measures common to all patients, regardless of etiology, phase and NYHA class - etiological treatment, correction of precipitating factors, prevention, diet, programmed exercise and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition. However, the diversity of pathophysiological and etiopathogenic aspects, the symptom intensity and the severity of the disease require individualized therapy, which implies the wise management of a panoply of drugs, mechanical resources and surgery.

Translated title of the contributionGuidelines on heart failure treatment: The need to tailor the therapy
Original languagePortuguese
Pages (from-to)439-445
Number of pages7
JournalRevista Portuguesa de Cardiologia
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jun 1999


  • Diastolic dysfunction
  • Heart failure
  • Systolic dysfunction
  • Therapy


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