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The wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) process enables the creation and repair of complex structures based on the successive deposition of fed metal in the form of a wire that is fused with an electric arc and then solidifies. The high number of depositions required to create or repair parts increases the likelihood of defect formation. If these are reliably detected during manufacturing, timely correction is possible. However, high temperatures and surface irregularity make inspection difficult. Furthermore, depending on the size, morphology, and location of the defect, the part can be rejected. Recent studies have shown that non-destructive testing (NDT) based on different physical phenomena for the timely, reliable, and customized detection of defects can significantly reduce the rejection rate and allow in-line repair, which consequently reduces waste and rework. This paper presents the latest developments in NDT for WAAM and its limitations and potential.

Original languageEnglish
Article number648
Number of pages38
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 24 Mar 2023


  • inspection
  • metals
  • non-destructive testing
  • WAAM
  • wire arc additive manufacturing


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