Non-destructive testing application of radiography and ultrasound for wire and arc additive manufacturing

Ana Lopez, Ricardo Bacelar, Inês Pires, Telmo G. Santos, José Pedro Sousa, Luísa Quintino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

105 Citations (Scopus)


The present work addressed the challenges of identifying applicable Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) techniques suitable for inspection and materials characterization techniques for Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) parts. With the view of transferring WAAM to the industry and qualifying the manufacturing process for applications such as structural components, the quality of the produced parts needs to be assured. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to review the main NDT techniques and assess the capability of detecting WAAM defects, for inspection either in a monitoring, in-process or post-process scenario. Radiography and ultrasonic testing were experimentally tested on reference specimens in order to compare the techniques capabilities. Metallographic, hardness and electrical conductivity analysis were also applied to the same specimens for material characterization. Experimental outcomes prove that typical WAAM defects can be detected by the referred techniques. The electrical conductivity measurement may complement or substitute some destructive methods used in AM processing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)298-306
Number of pages9
JournalAdditive Manufacturing
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018


  • Arc-based additive manufacturing
  • Eddy currents
  • Materials characterization
  • Non-destructive testing
  • Ultrasonic testing


Dive into the research topics of 'Non-destructive testing application of radiography and ultrasound for wire and arc additive manufacturing'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this