The richly decorated foral charter attributed by D. Manuel I of Portugal, in 1515, to the village of Setubal, was studied using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry and Raman micro-spectroscopy. An in situ characterization of the pigments used in the production of this masterpiece showed a very different pigment palette choice when compared to other similar Manueline charters. The red and green pigments are particularly puzzling, as the widely used mercury- and copper-based pigments, vermillion and malachite, respectively, were not found in the illuminated frontispiece. Instead, the cheaper lead-based pigment minium was used in the King's flag, while a mixture of copper sulfates was found for the green color, identified by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy. This result led to a new look at the conception that only one Royal workshop existed for the elaboration of Manueline foral charters.
Arinto, A. A. F. L. G., Guerra, M., Carvalho, ML., Remonatto, C., Manso, M., & Pessanha, S. (2016). New insights into the red and green pigments in the illuminated foral charter of Setúbal (1515) by combined use of µ-Raman and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 2016(10), 104902-104907 . https://doi.org/DOI: 10.1063/1.4943617