Nephrolithiasis is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease

Fernando Ferreira Domingos, Adelaide Serra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Citations (Scopus)


Background. Nephrolithiasis has been associated with hypertension, obesity and diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes among kidney stone formers (KSF) is unknown. Methods. We examined the IV Portuguese National Health Survey for documenting possible associations between nephrolithiasis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and obesity in the Portuguese adult population. Results. We obtained 23 349 questionnaires from individuals >= 15 years old. The prevalence of kidney stone disease (KSD) was 7.3%. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among KSF when compared with the general population (50.4 vs 30.2%; P < 0.001). Age and obesity significantly increase the risk for nephrolithiasis. After adjusting for age and body mass index, KSF have higher prevalence of hypertension [ odds ratio (OR), 1.841; 95% CI, 1.651-2.053], diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.475; 95% CI, 1.283-1.696; P < 0.001), myocardial infarction (OR, 1.338; 95% CI, 1.003-1.786; P < 0.05) and stroke (OR, 1.330; 95% CI, 1.015-1.743; P < 0.05) compared with non-stone formers. Conclusions. KSD is associated with a higher prevalence of chronic diseases and adverse cardiovascular outcomes when compared with the general population.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)864-868
Number of pages5
JournalNephrology Dialysis Transplantation
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011


  • cardiovascular risk
  • diabetes mellitus
  • hypertension
  • kidney stone disease
  • obesity


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