Natural hydraulic lime based grouts - The selection of grout injection parameters for masonry consolidation

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55 Citations (Scopus)


The goal of this research was to develop a methodology for grout composition optimization concerning specific applications. It could be developed for masonry consolidation or bonded prestressed tendon grout, pre-placed aggregate grout, among others. The grout development does not only depend on its intrinsic properties but also on the nature and features of the support. The purpose of a grout injection technique applied in a multiple leaf wall is to increase the compactness and create links between the internal and external leaves, which improve not only shear and flexural resistance but also the compressive strength. In practice, the variability of voids within masonries requires an ability to fine tune the rheological properties of the grout in order to optimally fill the voids. The methodology proposed here for testing grout injectability in a porous media like masonry is a logical tool to use in grout optimization. It shows that several grout parameters should be controlled for a successful injection. Concerning the support and its typology, the mortar between stones plays a fundamental role in the effectiveness of the intervention, due to its reduced porosity and composition. Besides that, earth and mortar, for example, can be present in the interior of masonry and make difficult, with their absorption, the injection. Thus, the water retention capacity of grout should be controlled to prevent that problem, as it was made in this work, using the optimized mixing procedure that takes into account that and other fresh grout properties. This study analyses some relevant grout properties such as yield stress, plastic viscosity, flowability and injectability for natural hydraulic lime based grouts in different porous media. The research shows that there are differences in the grout behaviour, especially in rheological properties, when different mixing procedures and/or grout composition (different water/binder or fly ash/binder ratios) are used and that fresh grout properties may be optimized for injection purpose.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)135-144
Number of pages10
JournalConstruction and Building Materials
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2012


  • Fly ash
  • Hydraulic lime grout
  • Injectability curves
  • Optimization
  • Rheological properties


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